In a heavy bottom Dutch oven, add 1 1/2 cups vegetable broth and 1/2 cup pearled barley. Bring to a boil over high heat. Once it reaches a boil, reduce heat and allow the pearl barley to simmer at least 10 minutes. Check it often and stir as the broth will evaporate. Once the barley has reached its desired chewiness, it’s done cooking. Fluff with a fork and scoop the barley into a clean bowl. Set aside.
Add olive oil to the Dutch oven and heat high on medium for 2 minutes. Add onion and red pepper, cook for 3 to 4 minutes, stirring occasionally with a rubber spatula. Add garlic and cook for 90 seconds. Add cauliflower, beans and chickpeas. Cook and stir for 2 minutes. Add tomatoes and the remaining vegetable broth and 1 1/2 to 2 cups water. Add thyme, oregano, onion powder, garlic powder, salt and pepper and stir. Bring soup to a boil.
Once soup comes to a boil, reduce to simmer and cook for 15 minutes. Add swiss chard, zucchini and cooked barley. Cook for another 3 to 4 minutes, stirring to combine. Season with salt and pepper, if necessary.
Portion soup to serving bowls and serve with a scoop of pesto on top of each bowl.